Sound configuration on Raspberry Pi with ALSA

While setting up a Raspberry Pi to play streamed music using UPnP, I have had quite a bit of trouble understanding how to configure the sound on my Raspberry Pi. This is partly because I am running it in headless mode (no graphical desktop) and partly because sound on Linux is fiendishly complicated.

Anyway, I am making progress in understanding what’s going on but I am no expert. Here are my findings on how to control the ALSA system from the command line. All I am focussed on here is getting control of the sound output by the 3.5mm stereo socket. If you want to control the output over the HDMI socket or an external USB sound card then you’ll need to do some of your own investigation.

ALSA is the lowest level of the Linux sound stack.  The “alsa-utils” package comes ready installed on the debian wheezy distribution I am using (  It provides some useful commands: amixer, alsamixer, alsactl, aplay and speaker-test.


It’s good to be able to test things as you go a long to see what affect configuration changes have. You can do this with the “speaker-test” command for one, which will by default play white (actually pink) noise out of the speakers. Press Ctrl-C to stop it.

Another command to try is “aplay”. This command will play WAV files for instance as well as lots of other basic sound file types (but not things with complex compression such as MP3, FLAC, OGG, etc). The Pi comes with some sound files already present, for instance in /usr/share/scratch/Media/Sounds. Try:

$ aplay /usr/share/scratch/Media/Sounds/Vocals/Singer2.wav

To get more information while the sound is playing, use the “-v” and “-V” options, e.g.

$ aplay /usr/share/scratch/Media/Sounds/Vocals/Singer2.wav -v -V mono

That will print a lot of info about the sound file and what device it is being sent to as well as a VU meter as the sound plays.

To see the available devices, use “aplay -L”. My machine gives this output (since installing PulseAudio):

$ aplay -L
    Discard all samples (playback) or generate zero samples (capture)
    Playback/recording through the PulseAudio sound server
    bcm2835 ALSA, bcm2835 ALSA
    Default Audio Device

It shows that the default device to use is directly to the ALSA device. Interestingly, if I try to play via PulseAudio using aplay with “aplay -D pulse ” then I get a bit of a pop but no sound…


$ amixer
Simple mixer control 'Master',0
  Capabilities: pvolume pswitch pswitch-joined penum
  Playback channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: Playback 0 - 65536
  Front Left: Playback 65536 [100%] [on]
  Front Right: Playback 65536 [100%] [on]
Simple mixer control 'Capture',0
  Capabilities: cvolume cswitch cswitch-joined penum
  Capture channels: Front Left - Front Right
  Limits: Capture 0 - 65536
  Front Left: Capture 0 [0%] [on]
  Front Right: Capture 0 [0%] [on]

Looking at the top part of the output, we can see that the playback volume for the left and right channels are both at maximum (65536, which is 2^16) and are both unmuted (“on”).

To control these settings we can use the alsamixer command which gives a graphical display (in your terminal) or the amixer command. Let’s look at amixer first:

$ amixer controls
numid=4,iface=MIXER,name='Master Playback Switch'
numid=3,iface=MIXER,name='Master Playback Volume'
numid=2,iface=MIXER,name='Capture Switch'
numid=1,iface=MIXER,name='Capture Volume'

That’s the list of things you can change (control) through the command. We can look at the playback volume in more detail:

$ amixer cget numid=3
numid=3,iface=MIXER,name='Master Playback Volume'
  ; type=INTEGER,access=rw------,values=2,min=0,max=65536,step=1
  : values=65536,65536

This shows the maximum and minimum values for the playback volume and that it is actually a pair of values (for left and right channels). For instance, to change the playback volume we can do:

$ amixer cset numid=3 50%
numid=3,iface=MIXER,name='Master Playback Volume'
  ; type=INTEGER,access=rw------,values=2,min=0,max=65536,step=1
  : values=32768,32768

If you wanted to change the left channel to 50% and the right to 100% for some reason then this command is for you:

$ amixer cset numid=3 50%,100%
numid=3,iface=MIXER,name='Master Playback Volume'
  ; type=INTEGER,access=rw------,values=2,min=0,max=65536,step=1
  : values=32768,65536

To mute the sound you can you control 4:

$ amixer cset numid=4 off
numid=4,iface=MIXER,name='Master Playback Switch'
  ; type=BOOLEAN,access=rw------,values=1
  : values=off

This also affects the volume values on control 3:

$ amixer cget numid=3
numid=3,iface=MIXER,name='Master Playback Volume'
  ; type=INTEGER,access=rw------,values=2,min=0,max=65536,step=1
  : values=0,0

However, the value of the volumes must be stored somewhere because when you unmute it again it restores them.

I have found odd effects when changing the volume while it is muted so best to avoid doing that.

Saving the ALSA state

The operating system saves the ALSA sound configuration when you turn it off and restores it when you turn it on. This is done with the /etc/init.d/alsa-utils script. The state is stored and restored using this file: /var/lib/alsa/asound.state

Once you have the sound configuration as you want it you can store it there using the alsactl command which you have to run with root permissions as it changes a protected file. Let’s set the volume to max, unmute it and store it:

$ amixer cset numid=3 100%
numid=3,iface=MIXER,name='Master Playback Volume'
  ; type=INTEGER,access=rw------,values=2,min=0,max=65536,step=1
  : values=65536,65536
$ amixer cset numid=4 on
numid=4,iface=MIXER,name='Master Playback Switch'
  ; type=BOOLEAN,access=rw------,values=1
  : values=on
$ sudo alsactl store

For me, this gives this changes /var/lib/alsa/asound.state to be:

state.ALSA {
        control.1 {
                iface MIXER
                name 'PCM Playback Volume'
                value 399
                comment {
                        access 'read write'
                        type INTEGER
                        count 1
                        range '-10239 - 400'
                        dbmin -9999999
                        dbmax 400
                        dbvalue.0 399
        control.2 {
                iface MIXER
                name 'PCM Playback Switch'
                value true
                comment {
                        access 'read write'
                        type BOOLEAN
                        count 1
        control.3 {
                iface MIXER
                name 'PCM Playback Route'
                value 2
                comment {
                        access 'read write'
                        type INTEGER
                        count 1
                        range '0 - 2'

If we mute it then have another look, line 5 changes to “value -10239″, line 13 changes to “dbvalue.0 -9999999″ and line 19 changes to “false”.

If we were to unmute and then set the volume to 50% (as described above) then line 5 changes to “value -1405″ and line 13 to “dbvalue.0 -1405″ (with line 19 being now set to “true”). Not quite sure where these numbers come from, they are probably the decibel volumes which are logarithmic, but let’s not go there…

If you want to stop the current state being saved when the machine shuts down then you need to disable the alsa-utils init script from running when the machine enters runlevel 0 (halt) and 6 (reboot). A slightly hacky way of doing this is to execute these commands:

$ sudo mv /etc/rc0.d/K01alsa-utils /etc/rc0.d/k01alsa-utils
$ sudo mv /etc/rc0.d/K06alsa-utils /etc/rc6.d/k01alsa-utils

Note that the files have been renamed to have a lowercase “k” at the start. When the machine enters runlevel 0 for instance (it does this when shutting down) all the scripts starting with “K” in the /etc/rc0.d folder are executed. By renaming it to start with a lowercase “k” the file is ignored and the ALSA state is not saved.


As well as using amixer on the command line to change the volumes and so on, you can also use a slightly graphical utility called alsamixer. Just type “alsamixer” and you’ll get something like the screenshot shown below:

alsamixer on a Raspberry Pi

In this utility you can move the volume up and down using the up and down cursor keys, mute and unmute using the “m” key and move from one device to another (if you have them) using the left and right cursor keys. Press the Esc key to exit. If you play with this and then type “amixer” once you’ve exited then you’ll see that the changes are reflected in the output of that command as well.

Final Thoughts

I hope that’s useful to someone like me who is struggling to understand all this. It is only one part of the stack, so I hope to look into PulseAudio in more detail another time as I think that’s where my problems are at the moment.

One last thing: if you completely mess things up then this command should sort it all out and make things sane again (sets volume to 44% for me):

$ sudo /etc/init.d/alsa-utils reset
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  • Ken

    I managed to play via PulseAudio using aplay with “aplay -D pulse ” by following the post from ergosys

    At least I think it was that, I’ve changed so many other things before :-(

    • scp93ch

      Thanks, I’ll have a look into it when I can….

  • Adam Ziajka

    I am a novice, newbe or useless some may say, i have been following your instructions step by step and have had no joy. I cant seem to get anything to work. I am now looking at the squeezePlug img download to see if this is easiler however from the description its not quite the same as your set up that is spot on. Do you have an raspberry pi sd img we could download?

    • scp93ch

      Sorry things aren’t working for you. Do you mean an image of my set-up with gmrender etc from the previous blog post? It’s a good idea, but I can’t do it any time soon.

  • Craig

    Thanks for this. Useful guide to someone who’s just starting out on their RPi journey. I had a couple of issues getting this to work:

    - Going into /etc/modules I found the system was trying to load Snd-bcm2835 on boot. Nothing worked. Changing it to Snd_bcm2835 seems to have sorted it.

    - I also had some fun with amixer – on the latest wheezy distro (as of 23.3.13 anyway) setting numid=3 controls the output (headphones, HDMI etc) not the volume. That caused a minor headache!

    Hope this helps!

    • scp93ch

      That’s really helpful, thanks Craig. I suppose the output from “amixer controls” was different for you? It seems like the sound configuration is still in flux.

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  • Goran Jordanov

    Good post sir. Is Pulse Audio a better sound output then Alsa? How hard is to configure RasPi to work with Pulse Audio. Thanks

    • scp93ch

      Thanks Goran.
      As far as I understand, it isn’t about the quality of the sound output but the facilities provided by the different systems. Pulse Audio builds on top of ALSA, providing additional features for other programs to make use of. Pulse Audio can accept audio input from multiple programs (including software running on other computers in the network) mix them and output them (e.g. via ALSA to the sound card).

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  • Rob Robinette

    Great info. My pi’s USB sound card’s volume was very low, even with alsa’s volume at 100%. Following your lead I ran “alsamixer” in a terminal window, selected F6 to choose “USB Audio” and raised the volume from 46% to to 100% using the up arrow–problem solved. Thanks for the help.

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  • Travis DePuy

    omg, i have been fighting my mic for the last 3 days! Your tutorial/guide/instructions for amixer saved me! Thank you.

    • Stephen C Phillips

      Glad to have helped.

  • stanleyella

    New info to me.thank sound on RPi hdmi to vga or RPi headphone skt.remmed config.txt after many un rems and adds

  • stanleyella

    The Singer2.wav plays.Must be a problem with sonic pi

  • Miguel Laverde

    hello, im trying to build a guitar pedal with my raspberry pi, using a usb dongle sound card, since im running the pi headless, i need to configure the audio mixer to always choose the usb audio card instead of the alsa default, any thoughts on how do i do this, and which file do i have to modify?

  • Lawrence Nwaogo

    Thanks for the great instruction. Everything seems to be working fine apart from the ‘rtl_fm’ command that does not seem to play ‘fm’ stations.

    • Stephen C Phillips

      I’d not seen rtl_fm till I just looked it up: it looks really good. Sorry to hear it doesn’t work, but I really can’t advise.